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LENS Articles 


For more informations please visit the LENS website


LENS Bibliography:

Cripe, C. (2007). Effective use of LENS unit as an adjunct to cognitive neuro-developmental training. Journal of Neurotherapy 10(2-3), 79-87.

Donaldson, C.C.S., Nelson, D.V., et al. (1998). Disinhibition in the gamma motor-neuron circuitry: a neglected mechanism for understanding myofascial pain syndromes. Applied Physiology & Biofeedback 23, 43-58.

Donaldson, C.C.S., Sella, G.E., et al. (1998). Fibromyalgia: a retrospective study of 252 consecutive referrals. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(6), 116-127.

Donaldson, C.C.S., Sella, G.E., & Mueller, H. (2001). The neural plasticity model of fibromyalgia: theory, assessment, & treatment. Practical Pain Management, Part One, May/June.

Donaldson, M., Donaldson, S. & Moran, D. (2014). The effect of LENS treatment on cognitive functioning and brainwave patterns. Biofeedback 42(4), 146-153.

Esty, M.L. (2007). Reflections on FMS treatment, research, and neurotherapy: cautionary tales. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 63-68.

Esty M.L. & Schifflett, C.M. (2014). Conquering concussion: Healing TBI symptoms with neurofeedback and without drugs. Sewickley, PA: Round Earth Publishing.

Evans, J. (Ed.). (2007). Handbook of Neurofeedback: Dynamics and Clinical Applications. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Medical Press.

Hallowell, E.M., & Jensen, P.S. (2010). Superparenting for ADD. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. 162-164.

Hammond, D.C. (2005). Neurofeedback to improve physical balance, incontinence, and swallowing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9:1, 27-36.

Hammond, D.C., Editor (2007). LENS: the Low Energy Neurofeedback System. Binghamton, NY: The Hawthorne Medical Press.

Hammond, D.C. (2007). Can LENS neurofeedback treat anosmia resulting from a head injury? Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 57-62.

Hammond, D.C. (2008). Investigations in neuromodulation, neurofeedback and applied neuroscience. Clinical Corner. Journal of Neurotherapy. 11:3.

Hammond, D.C. (2010). LENS neurofeedback treatment of anger: preliminary reports. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14:2, 162-169.

Hammond. D.C. (2010). QEEG evaluation of the LENS treatment of TBI. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14:2, 170-177.

Hammond, D.C. (2011). What is neurofeedback: an update. Journal of Neurotherapy, 15:4, 305-336. rofeedback_An_Update/links/0a85e530b6b2227ddc000000.pdf

Hammond, D.C. (2012). LENS neurofeedback treatment with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and neglect. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16:1, 47-52.

Hammond, D.C. (2012). Neurofeedback treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in sleep. Journal of Neurotherapy, 16:2, 155-163.

Hammond, D.C. & Baehr, E. (2009). Neurofeedback for the treatment of depression: current status of theoretical issues and clinical research. In Budzynski, T.H., Budzynski, H.K., Evans, J.R., and Abaranel, A. (Eds.) Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback: Advanced Theory and Applications. (295-308). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press. 5pd7MSuOa58ozfA1S1s#v=onepage&q&f=false

Hammond, D.C., Harper, S.H., O’Brien, J., & Dogris, N. (2010). Advancements in the LENS treatment protocols. Neuroconnections, 20-23.

Hammond, D.C., S. Stockdale, et al. (2001). Adverse reactions and potential iatrogenic effects in neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy ,4(4), 57-69.

Harper, S.H. (2009). Low energy neurofeedback system treatment of an acquired brain injury due to sudden cardiac arrest. Biofeedback: 37(3), pp. 100-103.

Horowitz, S. (2006). Biofeedback applications: a survey of clinical research. Alternative and Complementary Therapies,12:6, 275-281. doi:10.1089/act.2006.12.275.

Horowitz, S. (2012). Neurofeedback therapy in clinical applications and for cognitive enhancement. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 18(5), 242-247.

Hunt Harper, S. (2009). Low energy neurofeedback system treatment of an acquired brain injury due to sudden cardiac arrest. Biofeedback, 37:3, 100-103.

Hutchison, M. (1994). Mega brain power: transform your life with mind machines and brain nutrients. Hyperion.

Journal of Neurotherapy (2006). Two volume journal set devoted to the topic of the LENS. 10:2-3, 1-104.

Kramer, L. S. (2001). Uncommon Voyage: Parenting a Special Needs Child. North Atlantic Books.

Kravitz, H.M., Esty, M.L., Katz, R.S., & Fawcett, J. (2006). Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the flexyx neurotherapy system: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 41-58.

Lanius, U.F. (2019). Developmental Trauma, LENS and Neural Regulation: Brain and Body. Asia Pacific Journal of Neurotherapy. 2019, 1, 23–37. _2019.pdf

Larsen, S. (2001). The use of flexyx treatment modality with patients with multiple brain and spinal cord injuries. Future Health Winter Brain Conference. Miami, FL.

Larsen, S. (2006). The healing power of neurofeedback: The revolutionary LENS technique for restoring optimal brain function. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

Larsen, S. (2009). The special applicability of the low energy neurofeedback system form of neurofeedback to traumatic brain injury: The Theory, Biofeedback, 37(3), 104- 107. doi:

Larsen, S. (2012). The neurofeedback solution: How to treat autism, ADHD, anxiety, brain injury, stroke, PTSD and more. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

Larsen, S., Harrington, K., & Hicks, S. (2006). The LENS (low energy neurofeedback system): A clinical outcomes study of one hundred patients at Stone Mountain Center, New York. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 69-78. y.pdf

Larsen, S., Larsen, R., Hammond, D.C., Sheppard, S., Ochs, L., Johnson, S., Adinaro, C., & Chapman, C. (2006). The LENS neurofeedback with animals. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3), 89-104.

Larsen, S., Larsen, R., et al. (2004). The LENS with animals: preliminary observations. International Society for Neuronal Regulation, National Conference. Ft. Lauderdale.

Larsen, S., & Sherlin, L. (2013). Neurofeedback: an emerging technology for treating central nervous system dysregulation. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 36:1, 1-200. Complementary and Integrative Therapies for Psychiatric Disorders.

Marcus, L. (2001). EEG Amplitude and Variability Changes Following Low-Intensity Neurofeedback-Based Stimulation for Fibromyalgia. Palo Alto, CA, Western Graduate School of Psychology (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D).

Miller, J.A. (2013). Breaking the bars: Sustainable recovery vs. incarceration (unpublished paper – contact for a copy).

Miller, J.A. (2013). Neurotherapy as an adjunct therapy for addiction solutions: Neurological recovery model (unpublished paper – contact for a copy).

Miller, J.A. (2013). Neurotherapy for sustainable addiction recovery: An integrated model. Paper presented at the annual International Society of Neurofeedback and Research Conference, Dallas, TX.

Miller, J.A. (2014). Low energy neurofeedback: A primary key to prescription medication dependence recovery (unpublished paper – contact for a copy).

Miller, J.A. (2014). Neurotherapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder Children (unpublished paper – contact for a copy).

Miller, J.A. (2014). LENS training for children with neurological dysfunction (unpublished paper – contact for a copy).

Miller, J.A. (2014). Nine functions of the prefrontal cortex: LENS training – dysfunctional to functional (unpublished paper – contact for a copy).

Mueller, H.H., Donaldson, C.C.S., et al. (2001). Treatment of fibromyalgia incorporating EEG-driven stimulation: A clinical out-comes study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(7): 933-952.

Nelson, D.V., Esty, M.L. (2016). Neurotherapy as a catalyst in the treatment of fatigue in breast cancer survivorship. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing , Volume 12 , Issue 4 , 246 - 249

Nelson, D.V., Esty, M.L. (2015). Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/post-traumatic stress symptoms in vietnam veterans. Military Medicine, 180, e1111-1114.

Nelson, D. V., & Esty, M. L. (2015). Neurotherapy for chronic headache following traumatic brain injury. Military Medical Research, 2(1), 1-5.

Nelson, D.V., Bennett, R. M., Barkhuizen, A., Sexton, G.J., Jones, K.D., Esty, M.L., Ochs, L. and Donaldson, C.C.S. (2010), Neurotherapy of Fibromyalgia? Pain Medicine, 11: 912–919. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00862.x

Nelson, D.V., Esty, M.L. (2009). Neurotherapy for pain in veterans with trauma spectrum disorders. Journal of Pain, 10:4, Supplement, S18.

Nelson, D.V., Esty, M.L. (2012). Neurotherapy of traumatic brain injury/posttraumatic stress symptoms in OEF/OIF veterans. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24:2, 237-240.

Ochs, L. (1993a). New light on lights, sound, and the brain. Megabrain Reports: Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57(7), 933-952.

Ochs, L. (1996). Thoughts about EEG-Driven stimulation after three years of its uses: Ramifications for concepts of pathology, recovery, and brain function. Unpublished manuscript.

Ochs, L. (2007a). Comment on the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome using low-intensity neurofeedback with the flexyx neurotherapy system: A randomized controlled clinical trial, or how to go crazy over nearly nothing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3): 59-61.

Ochs, L. (2007b). The low energy neurofeedback system (LENS): theory, background and introduction. Journal of Neurotherapy, 10(2-3): 5-37.

Ochs, L. (2007c). Comment on neurofeedback overtraining and the vulnerable patient. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(3), 67-71.

Ochs, L. (2010a). Underlying treatment Issues in neurofeedback as exemplified by treatment of seizure disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy, Spring, 29-33.

Ochs, L. (2010b). Working with latent and actual seizures. Journal of Neurotherapy, Summer. 30-32.

Ochs, L. & Berman, M. (1997). EDS: Background and operation. EEG-driven pico-photic stimulation. Walnut Creek, CA: Flexyx, LLC.

Robbins, J. (2008). Biology, Psychology, the Brain, and Quantum Physics: Neuroscience, Epigenetics, Energy Psychology, Quantum Physics, Eudaimonics, Buddhism, and the Brain. Measuring the immeasurable: The scientific case for spirituality (pp. 243-254). Boulder, CO: Sounds True.

Robbins, J. (updated 2013). A symphony in the brain: The evolution of the new brain wave biofeedback. New York, NY: Grove Press.

Schoenberger, N.E., Shiflett, S.C., Esty, M.L., Ochs, L., & Matheis, R.J. (2001). Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16(3), 260-274. stem_in_the_Treatment_of.5.aspx

St. Clair, M., (2008). LENS case study: traumatic brain injury From AVM (Arterial Venous Malformation). Neuroconnections, 7(29-30).

Stoler, D.R. & Hill, B.A. (2013). Coping with Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. New York, NY: Penguin Random House.

White, Christine (2008). Restoring optimal brain function helps many health problems: ADD, autism, depression, fibromyalgia, anxiety, PTSD, learning disorders, strokes, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis. Townsend Letter, The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, April 2008.

Wodtke, D. (2018). Malware removal – my healing journey with the LENS. Biofeedback, 46(4): 97-98. e=gscholar&cbl=506344

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